The proposals examine what drives different parts of that system and ultimately could help us predict and mitigate its effects on spacecraft and astronauts, as NASA’s Artemis program looks to send the first woman and the next man to the moon by 2024.
Each of these Heliophysics Mission of Opportunity proposals will receive $400,000 to conduct a nine-month mission concept study. After the study period, NASA will choose one proposal to go forward to launch. Each potential mission has a separate launch opportunity and time frame.
The proposals were selected based on potential science value and feasibility of development plans. The total cost for the mission ultimately chosen will be capped at $55 million and is funded by NASA’s Heliophysics Explorers program.
Peg Luce, deputy director for heliophysics in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington, said, "NASA’s research to understand the space we travel through relies on exploring key details about a vast system from the sun, to Earth, to the edges of the solar system."
The selected proposals are:
- Aeronomy at Earth: Tools for Heliophysics Exploration and Research (AETHER): AETHER would explore the ionosphere-thermosphere system and its response to geomagnetic storms. From a position aboard the International Space Station, it could gather observations of the ionosphere – the area of our atmosphere that overlaps with the lower regions of space. These observations would be complemented by ground observations of electrons in the same region.
- Extreme Ultraviolet High-Throughput Spectroscopic Telescope (EUVST) Epsilon Mission: EUVST would aim to provide an answer to a fundamental question in solar physics: How does the interplay of solar material – a hot plasma – and magnetic fields drive solar activity and eruptions, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections? The mission would launch with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Solar-C mission, planned for 2025.
- Electrojet Zeeman Imaging Explorer (EZIE): EZIE would focus on an electric current known as the auroral electrojet, which circles through the atmosphere around 60 to 90 miles above Earth, near the poles. Using three SmallSats to measure magnetic fields, EZIE would observe the structure of electrojets and explore what causes them and how they evolve. Electrojets are part of a larger space weather system that can lead to oscillations in Earth’s magnetic fields, creating geomagnetic storms that can interfere with spacecraft and – at their most intense – utility grids on the ground.
"Each of these proposals could add a significant tool from a unique vantage point to help us understand that system," Luce added.
Receive the latest developments and updates on Australia’s space industry direct to your inbox. Subscribe today to Space Connect here.